Aristotle Beyond the Academy

Feminist Four Causes

Here is a cartoon explaining Aristotle’s Four Causes ad defined in his Physics II.3 and Metaphysics V.2. It is by George Poynder, an undergraduate and child of Edith Hall. She was asked to give a visual guide to the causes for a lecture by her mother: what is a thing made of, what is its form, who or what creates it, and for what purpose or end?

George decided to change Aristotle’s sculptor to a female one making a statue of a female divinity, Athena, out of a block of stone, to a design in her imagination, to stand in a temple.


Durham UniversityDurham University Centre for Classical ReceptionLeverhulme Trust